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Lee Epstein
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Lee Epsteing Ethan A.H. Shepley Distinguished University Professor
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KENNEDY'S LEFTWARD DRIFT

Lee Epstein, Washington University in St. Louis
Andrew D. Martin, University of Michigan
Kevin Quinn, University of Michigan

We used the Martin-Quinn scores to plot Justice Anthony M. Kennedy’s estimated ideology over time; for purposes of comparison, we also include Sandra Day O’Connor, another pivotal justice during her time on the Court. Both drifted to the left, though Kennedy is now more liberal than O’Connor was when she left the bench.

Click here for a pdf version of the graph.